Using the white cane
You hold the grip of your white cane near the middle of your body level of your waist. While walking the tip is swung from the left to the right the width your shoulders. In doing so, the cane is always kept one step ahead of your feet. This allows you to detect obstacles and stair steps in time.
In buildings walking along a wall and looking for a door you may not want to sweep the tip from side to side. The cane is held diagonally in front of the body along the skirting board while walking. Thus a door is easily detected.
Stairs technique, up and down
You can detect the first and last step of the stairs by correctly using the cane. The technique will be explained to you.
This allows you to safely use stairs even without railings.
Basic principles of orientation
Persons who lose their sight later on in life are already familiar with the basic principles of orientation. Children who are blind at birth learn these principles from their parents/teachers/instructors (body image, left/right, front/back, turns, parallel, perpendicular....).
To be able to orientate yourself independently, you need clear-cut points of reference along the way. You make use of the white cane and your remaining senses and elaborate maps in your mind.
Quiet residential area
Here you can take your first steps outdoors. You can learn to use your cane on a pavement that is not always completely smooth an regular, and you will learn to localise driveways. Fom the sound made by the cane tip you can conclude on the material of fences and other other things. Your teacher might also ask you to orally repeat in the right order what you have explored. Thus we make sure that you find your way when you are on your own
You learn to how to cross streets and roads safely. In doing so, you look for the right place to cross and determine the direction and the right moment to begin your crossing, the sound of the traffic giving you the cues. Your sense of hearing plays an important role here. You can also learn how to cope with crossroads (intersections) controlled by traffic lights without accessible pedestrian signals. This will depend upon individual circumstances and needs.
Using buses and trains requires courage and a lot of concentration. Even those who cannot see can learn to locate the doors, enter safely and find a seat.